Net Neutrality Threatened by Trump Administration

Tom Wheeler, the former chair of the FCC, used his final speech before stepping down to warn businesses and consumers that their choice of cloud services and business applications could be severely limited if the incoming administration strikes down the 2015 open internet order that he and his group put in place. This order positioned the FCC’s net neutrality regulation that prevents Internet Service Providers from slowing or blocking traffic on their networks. This gives all traffic equal opportunity and speed and prevents network favoritism.

Wheeler also showed concern for the Internet of Things, an area of economic growth that is quickly becoming top of mind to many businesses and policy makers in Washington.

“[T]he growth of the internet of things is another area that depends on the open connectivity of those things,” Wheeler said. “If ISPs can decide arbitrarily which IoT device can be connected, or favor their own IoT activity over their competitors, the bright future of IoT dims.” Wheeler continued, “As everything goes into the cloud, the ability to access the cloud free of gatekeepers is essential. If ISPs get to choose which applications and clouds work better than others in terms of access, speed and latency, they will control the cloud future,”.

Wheeler’s position may not be a surprise now but given his past as a lobbyist for the cable and wireless sector his support of net neutrality may come as a shock.

Bill Wilson, a consultant for Broadband Landing, said, “Wheeler may be underplaying the seriousness of the situation. Net Neutrality is the biggest deal that no one really understands. If consumers and small businesses actually realized what the internet would look like after it was bought and sold by large corporations that was be worried. This would be all that was being talked about.”

Wheeler has the same question many businesses do, namely will Trump dismantle a policy that is clearly working? With republicans openly opposed to net neutrality things do seem dire for the policy.

Wheeler’s speech not only acts as a warning to the incoming administration but also clearly attempts to widen the scope of the net neutrality debate as a whole. Consumer impact of the open internet order is almost always the lead in any discussion of net neutrality but here Wheeler’s focus was on the danger to businesses and their increasing use of cloud computing. Interruption or the slowing of these services is a bit more destructive than a video playing slow. Businesses might be required to completely change back office management systems. A company like Salesforce.com could have their customer base divided between users that have an ISP that allows their traffic and ISP’s that won’t. Situations of this type could be repeated across many business services. If AT&T buys a firm that provides CMS to sales and marketing groups, it is not unthinkable that they would show preference to this firm over others.

Wheeler specifically calls out Verizon and AT&T for the “zero rating” programs that give some companies free access by not charging customers for the data they use. While this isn’t the feared “Fast Lane” net neutrality has been trying to avoid, it may actually be worse.

Wheeler finished his speech with, “It now falls to a new set of regulators, to a new FCC and to those who advocate before it and the Congress to determine the road that they want to take from here,” Wheeler said. “We are at a fork in that road. One path leads forward and the other leads back to relitigating solutions that are demonstrably working.”

While the fork in the road analogy fits, it’s actually a bit more drastic than Wheeler makes it seem. One road leads forward and the other leads back a decade and then off a cliff into a hole filled with alligators.

Regulate The Internet!

With the advent of Web 2.0 and UGC (User-generated Content), the Internet has completed its transformation into an anarchic and lawless ochlocracy (mob-rule). The Internet is a mass medium and like all media it must be regulated. The laws that apply offline must and, in due time, as legislators are exposed to the less savory aspects of the Web, will apply online.

Inevitably, the legal situation varies across countries and continents. Internet penetration has reached different levels at different times in different places. Thus, the following observations and recommendations are not universally valid or applicable. In some locales, various aspects of cyberspace have been tackled by governments and legislatures, albeit rarely fully and satisfactorily. In others, the field is wide open and the Internet resembles the Wild West at its worst moments.

Laws and regulations passed and intermittently enforced against cybercrime attempt to prevent and constrain only a few obviously illegal acts. Spammers, spyware purveyors, child pornographers, and terrorists are the blatant tip of a much subtler iceberg of malicious and pernicious misconduct.

These are the minimal, initial steps that have to be taken in order to forestall a meltdown of this indispensable utility, the Internet:

1. Slander, Libel, and Defamation vs. Free Speech

The legal status of owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should be equated to that of publishers and journalists in the print and electronic media. Consequently, they should be held liable to civil damages and to criminal charges arising from actionable libel and defamation posted on their properties if they don’t act promptly to comprehensively remedy said libel and defamation.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and hosting services should be obligated to disclose to law enforcement agencies and/or to plaintiffs the full personal data of anyone who break the law by publishing or sending libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content on or via the Internet.

2. Privacy

The right to privacy of computer users should be embedded in consumer protection laws, allowing for criminal penalties to be imposed on the perpetrators of privacy breaches and for civil damages to the victims.

Individuals and firms who accumulate personal data of suppliers, employees, customers and users or who gain access to them in the normal course of business should be obliged to protect and safeguard such information and to promptly notify those potentially affected of any incident involving the compromise of their personal data. Failure to act reasonably diligently to prevent identity theft should become a criminal offense.

Exceptions should be made only for law enforcement needs and even then only pursuant to warrants issued by especially-designated courts (the equivalent of FISA-mandated courts in the USA).

3. Copyright and Intellectual Property

Intellectual property laws should be considerably relaxed and fair use provisions considerably expanded to accommodate and reflect the nature, possibilities, and constraints of digital renditions of information.

Owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should be held liable to civil damages and to criminal charges arising from infringements of copyrights and other intellectual property rights posted on or via their properties if they don’t act promptly to comprehensively remedy said infringements.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and hosting services should be obligated to disclose to law enforcement agencies and/or to plaintiffs the full personal data of anyone who break the law by violating copyrights and other intellectual property rights on or via the Internet.

4. Anonymity

Anonymous or pseudonymous publishing of libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content on the Internet – including via e-mail, instant messaging, mashups, or wikis – should be explicitly and specifically made illegal.

Owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters, and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should be made responsible to obtain the full names and countries of domicile of registered users, posters, contributors, and participants. Upon the first request of an injured party or a law enforcement agency, they should be obligated to make these personal data public in conjunction with libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content published.

Providing false personal data to owners, editors, administrators, and moderators of bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, and blogging communities should be made a criminal offense as well as give rise to civil damages.

Providing false personal data or remaining anonymous while sending or posting libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening correspondence (for instance, via e-mail) should be made a criminal offense as well as give rise to civil damages.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and hosting services should be obligated to disclose to law enforcement agencies and/or to plaintiffs the full personal data of anyone who break the law by anonymously or pseudonymously publishing or sending libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content on or via the Internet.

5. Licensing and Anti-trust

All licensing requirements, content laws, and regulatory supervision that now apply to the print and electronic media should apply to Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, search engines and portals, online news sources, and blogging communities. The Internet should be subjected to supervision and regulation by the relevant governmental oversight agencies (e.g., in the USA: FCC, FTC, SEC, and others).

Competition (anti-trust) laws and regulations shall be extended to apply to the Internet or, where they are already applicable, shall be enforced to ensure search neutrality, equal access to information, equal access to computing platforms, and fair competition.

6. Truth in Advertising and Misrepresentations

The owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters, and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should have to truthfully describe the nature of their Internet properties and all other pertinent information items that may be required by a reasonable user – including their ownership structure, privacy policies, sources of information, affiliations, potential and actual conflicts of interest, outstanding lawsuits, risks associated with making use of their Internet properties and other pertinent disclosures.

Misrepresentations should be explicitly and specifically outlawed and carry both criminal penalties and civil liabilities.

It is not too late to restore a semblance of lawfulness to the Internet. True, the Web has been hijacked by stalkers, criminals, big business, and scammers. Even honest users are clueless as to what is and is not allowed. As far as the overwhelming majority of surfers are concerned, voluntary codes of conduct and the much-vaunted Netiquette have utterly failed to render cyberspace safe or, indeed, serviceable. The invisible hand of the market is, indeed, nowhere to be seen.

It is time for legislators and regulators to step in. Even a moderate dose of legislation and the willingness not to succumb to either to mob or to business pressures will go a long way towards restoring the Internet to its original purpose: the civilized and lawful – not to mention pleasurable – exchange of information and opinion over computer networks.

The Best Tips To Become A Police Officer

Job security is at the top of the list of any individual or family member in order to achieve peace of mind in this age of uncertainty. A secure job provides an individual and their family a stable and reliable income that will assist in the current up and down nature of the global economy. A career in law enforcement can offer the stability of a reliable job and produce greater rewards beyond financial gain. When a person becomes a United Kingdom Police Officer they are becoming a symbol of justice and a pillar in the community which they protect.

With a job available to people in law enforcement, the question arises how to become a police officer. The first step in deciding if a career in law enforcement is right for you is with a self evaluation. When an individual steps up to the role of community protector there is a certain requirement for personal sacrifice for your country and your community. Some of the key personality characteristics associated with police officers are confidence in yourself and the ability to display respect to others. The best way to discover how to become a police officer is by taking a careful look at who you are and what you represent as an individual. A moral individual who shows respect for others and has the confidence to assert themselves are some of the important features necessary in deciding how to become a police officer.

On the road to discover how to become a police officer applying to the position is the next step following a successful self assessment. Remember that when you start the process of applying to a law enforcement position that the recruitment procedure is created to weed out the weak and uplift the strong so give it everything you have. The completion of the application is the first step in how to become a police officer. Remember that honesty is key and modesty will only harm your chances so detail all that you can offer the police agency. With the acceptance of your application the next step in how to become a police officer involves an extensive assessment. The police assessment is a collection of verbal, written and interactive exams that tests the individual’s intelligence and ability to interpret data. This exam is a standardized exam with all forty-three agencies in England and Whales so help is available to those who truly desire to pass the assessment. The final step related to how to become a police officer is an assessment of your financial and security history being reviewed along with your medical history. The final part of this phase will incorporate a physical exam that will test your abilities in relation to real world circumstances.

There is a great deal of work required in how to become a police officer but the rewards will be great. Along with the financial stability associated with being a UK Police Officer, there is a sense of personal pride as you protect your community.

Crime Fighting Computer Systems And Databases

As crime globalizes, so does crime fighting. Mobsters, serial killers, and terrorists cross state lines and borders effortlessly, making use of the latest advances in mass media, public transportation, telecommunications, and computer networks. The police – there are 16,000 law enforcement agencies in the Unites States alone – is never very far behind.

Quotes from the official Web pages of some of these databases:

National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC)

Its mission is to combine investigative and operational support functions, research, and training in order to provide assistance, without charge, to federal, state, local, and foreign law enforcement agencies investigating unusual or repetitive violent crimes. The NCAVC also provides support through expertise and consultation in non-violent matters such as national security, corruption, and white-collar crime investigations.

It comprises the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU), Child Abduction and Serial Murder Investigative Resources Center (CASMIRC), and Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP).

VICAP is a nationwide data information center designed to collect, collate, and analyze crimes of violence – specifically murder. It collates and analyzes the significant characteristics of all murders, and other violent offenses.

Homicide Investigation Tracking System (HITS)

A program within the Washington state’s Attorney General’s Office that tracks and investigates homicides and rapes.

Violent Crime Linkage System (ViCLAS)

Canada-wide computer system that assists specially trained investigators to identify serial crimes and criminals by focusing on the linkages that exist among crimes by the same offender. This system was developed by the RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) in the early 1990s.

UTAP, stands for The Utah Criminal Tracking and Analysis Project

Gathers experts from forensic science, crime scene analysis, psychiatry and other fields to screen unsolved cases for local law enforcement agencies.

International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO) – Interpol’s DNA Gateway

Provides for the transfer of profile data between two or more countries and for the comparison of profiles that conform to Interpol standards in a centralized database. Investigators can access the database via their Interpol National Central Bureau (NCB) using Interpol’s secure global police communications system, I-24/7.

Interpol’s I-24/7

Global communication system to connect its member countries and provide them with user-friendly access to police information. Using this system, Interpol National Central Bureaus (NCBs) can search and cross-check data in a matter of seconds, with direct and immediate access to databases containing critical information (ASF Nominal database of international criminals, electronic notices, stolen motor vehicles, stolen/lost/counterfeit travel and ID documents, stolen works of art, payment cards, fingerprints and photographs, a terrorism watch list, a DNA database, disaster victim identification, international weapons tracking and trafficking in human beings-related information, etc).

Interpol Fingerprints

Provides information on the development and implementation of fingerprinting systems for the general public and international law enforcement entities.

Europol (European Union’s criminal intelligence agency) Computer System (TECS)

Member States can directly input data into the information system in compliance with their national procedures, and Europol can directly input data supplied by non EU Member States and third bodies. Also provides analyses and indexing services.

Public Relations for Law Enforcement Agencies

Law-enforcement agencies, especially police departments often get a bad rap and a bad reputation due to negative publicity or mistakes that might have been made in the field. Sometimes these stories get rather embellished and it is not the Police Department’s fault. Sometimes perfectly honest police officers are made to look like the devil and the mass media hysteria runs away with a story based on a short clip of a video, which is limited in length and does not show the whole picture of what happened.

It is important for law enforcement agencies to be out and about and respected by the public. Whereas some people who receive a speeding ticket are angry at the Police Department, the first time something happens to them the police are the first people they call. It is a love-hate relationship with citizens often and law enforcement and that is too bad. Clearly it does not have to be that way.

Police departments should form community policing units that improve visibility and understanding. Educational programs in the schools are also important for police departments and they obviously will help when it comes time for witnesses to come forward.

Law-enforcement agencies should always be on good terms with the local media and have open communication lines. They should also promote a very strong and robust public relations program so that they do not fall victim to hearsay when problems arise. Please consider all this in 2006.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/319755

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

The united states federal government maintains numerous law enforcement agencies throughout it’s many departments with a myriad of roles and responsibilities. Some of the more well known federal law enforcement agencies are the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), The United States Marshal’s service (USMS) and the United States Secret Service (USSS). Each of these federal agencies has very different roles and responsibilities within the law enforcement community. There are several dozen federal agencies in existence and their responsibilities run the gamut from static protection of federal lands and buildings to proactive patrol, protection and investigations.

Federal law enforcement agencies are able to enforce both federal as well as state laws throughout the united states and possess full police powers granted to them under the United States Code. Most law enforcement officers employed by federal agencies are not referred to as police officers but are officially designated as ‘Special Agents’. Many federal agencies maintain both plain clothes as well as a uniformed division, one well known example of this is the United States Secret Service. Although many in the public are familiar with the neat, well dressed men and women who they see shadowing the president of the united states where ever he goes and speaking frequently in to their coat sleeves, what many people don’t know is that there is also a uniformed division that is responsible for protecting the White House, the US vice presidents official home in Washington as well as protecting foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington DC federal district.

Becoming a member of a federal agency can be a long and involved undertaking. The hiring process can take up to a year or longer in some cases and includes written and physical tests as well as a stringent background investigation. The hiring process typically will include a psychological test and interview as well as a polygraph examination. Failure in any one of the phases of testing during the hiring process results in the applicant being removed from further consideration. Once an applicant has passed all phases of the hiring process and has been approved for hire, they will be placed on an eligible list of applicants. At which point they may be sent to Gynco, Georgia to be trained at the Federal Training Center located there or at one of the satellite facilities.

Becoming a federal officer with a federal law enforcement agency can be a grueling and time consuming process, but the variety of assignments and travel available in federal law enforcement as compared to a typical municipal or even a state agency, make the effort well worth it.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4667104

‘Dronejacking’ may be the next big cyber threat

WASHINGTON: A big rise in drone use is likely to lead to a new wave of “dronejackings” by cybercriminals, security experts warned on Tuesday.
‘Dronejacking’ may be the next big cyber threat
©goce risteski via 123RF
A report by Intel’s McAfee Labs said hackers are expected to start targeting drones used for deliveries, law enforcement or camera crews, in addition to hobbyists.

“Drones are well on the way to becoming a major tool for shippers, law enforcement agencies, photographers, farmers, the news media, and more,” said Intel Security’s Bruce Snell, in the company’s annual threat report.

Snell said the concept of dronejacking was demonstrated at a security conference last year, where researchers showed how someone could easily take control of a toy drone. “Although taking over a kid’s drone may seem amusing and not that big of an issue, once we look at the increase in drone usage potential problems starts to arise,” he said.

The report noted that many consumer drones lack adequate security, which makes it easy for an outside hacker to take control. Companies like Amazon and UPS are expected to use drones for package deliveries – becoming potential targets for criminals, the report said.

“Someone looking to ‘dronejack’ deliveries could find a location with regular drone traffic and wait for the targets to appear,” the report said.

“Once a package delivery drone is overhead, the drone could be sent to the ground, allowing the criminal to steal the package.”

The researchers said criminals may also look to steal expensive photographic equipment carried by drones, to knock out surveillance cameras used by law enforcement.

Intel said it expects to see dronejacking “toolkits” traded on “dark web” marketplaces in 2017. “Once these toolkits start making the rounds, it is just a matter of time before we see stories of hijacked drones showing up in the evening news,” the report said.

Other predictions in the report included a decrease in so-called “ransomware” attacks as defenses improve, but a rise in mobile attacks that enable cyber thieves to steal bank account or credit card information. The report also noted that cybercriminals will begin using more sophisticated artificial intelligence or “machine learning” techniques and employ fake online ads.

Stunned US tech sector ponders future under Trump

WASHINGTON: After disbelief, anger and grief, the US tech sector is looking to come to grips with the presidency of a man described by many of its leading lights as a “disaster” for innovation.
MIH83 via
MIH83 via Pixabay
The major US technology companies, almost uniformly opposed to Donald Trump’s candidacy, saw huge stock declines in the wake of November 8, but most have now rebounded to near their pre-election levels.

Some observers are saying it makes little difference who is in the White House, and others argue Trump is unlikely to carry out the promises – and threats – he made during a bitter campaign.

Trump sent shivers through Silicon Valley during his election bid by pledging to squeeze trade from China, clamp down on immigration which is critical to many tech firms, and even warning that online giant Amazon could have “a huge antitrust problem” if he were elected.

Close to 150 tech icons – including founders of Apple, Wikipedia and Reddit – penned an open letter in July warning the Republican nominee would be an “disaster for innovation”.

Gene Munster, analyst on the tech sector at Piper Jaffray, said the initial beating in tech shares had created a “rare opportunity to buy the fear”. But in a research note last week Munster argued that “the tech industry is in more control of its own destiny than Donald Trump and will work through these problems.”

The analyst said an antitrust probe of Amazon was unlikely, nor does he expect major changes on skilled immigration under Trump. Any tariffs on electronics or components could potentially impact firms like Apple, but would be spread equally over manufacturers because they all rely on imports, Munster noted.

In the meantime, any negative impact could be offset by Trump’s pledge to lower taxes on capital repatriated from overseas, which could be a boon for Apple, Google and others and encourage investment in the US, analysts noted.

The tech sector holds the lion’s share of an estimated $2.5 trillion held by US firms overseas.

“There could be a lot of money that is repatriated by tech companies,” said Bob O’Donnell, analyst and consultant at Technalysis Research in Silicon Valley. “If they could use it for job creation, that could be interesting.”

More broadly, O’Donnell said the tech sector may get “a fresh look at the kinds of services and technologies that people want to invest in” under Trump. For example, a major push on infrastructure investment “could be a big opportunity” to integrate “smart” technology for services such as transportation.

While tech leaders “did a lot of soul searching” after the election, O’Donnell said that “they are smart business people and they realise they have to work in this new environment.”

Although Trump has said little about his agenda for the sector, O’Donnell noted that “tech is a huge part of the economy and you can’t ignore it; but things that might be viewed as special privileges might be taken away.”

Some are concerned that a Republican administration may seek to roll back so-called “net neutrality” that prohibits broadband firms from playing favorites, which could mean difficulties for online video operators like Netflix and Amazon.

Many tech leaders have had to take a new tack after an emotional campaign that featured ugly rhetoric on both sides. Tech leaders clashed with Trump during the campaign on issues ranging from law enforcement surveillance to immigration to gay rights.

Apple chief executive Tim Cook said in a memo to staff that the company’s “North Star hasn’t changed” and that “the only way to move forward is to move forward together,” according to the Wall Street Journal.

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg brushed off the vote by telling a tech conference that “most progress… is made by private citizens,” and that “it would not be right to say (the election of Trump) changes the fundamental arc of technology or progress over time.”

Others were less diplomatic.

Box founder Aaron Levie tweeted after the election, “You know those times where we watch other countries and are like “oh man you guys are crazy.”

“Shit that’s us now.”

Tech investor Anil Dash wrote on Twitter: “I am not moving to Canada, not surprised by white supremacists and misogynists, and not afraid of Donald Trump. We have got to get to work.”

Charlie O’Donnell at the investment firm Brooklyn Bridge Ventures said it’s not time to panic. “If you felt good about what you were doing at your company yesterday, you should feel good about it today,” he said in a blog.

But he also said the election offers a lesson that “we need to start caring about a much wider tent of people than we have been.”

Meanwhile Dex Torricke-Barton, a former Facebook and Google executive, quit his job at SpaceX to work for social causes after news of the Trump election.

“As an immigrant and the son of a refugee, and as someone dedicated to advancing the interests of humanity, I don’t want to watch while the world slips backwards,” Torricke-Barton said on Facebook.

“So I’m choosing to go and make whatever contribution I can — no matter how small — toward making the change we need: standing up for openness, compassion and sound global leadership.”

Big Data and the power of cross-industry data sharing

Data is prolific; it’s ubiquitous and pertains to virtually every aspect of life and its ability to offer additional value to customers – and, in turn, the industry’s ability to leverage it – is extraordinary. The trouble is effectively collating raw data across multiple industries and platforms and transforming it into useful analytics. But despite the challenges, the future is Big Data.
Big Data and the power of cross-industry data sharing
©solarseven via 123RF
In the auto insurance business, for example, the ability to ascertain a driver’s driving habits in real-time enables insurers to offer more accurate premiums, based on their unique risk profile. And the vast sum of data that can be accrued from across industries – insurance, health, law enforcement and automotive – will significantly improve the ability to accurately predict the likelihood of a claim. This will greatly aid insurers in the calculation of loss ratios and the pricing of premiums.

Across industries, data gathered through ever-lengthening longitudinal studies would go a long way to inform improved car design and innovative safety features. Authorities would be notified of an accident or infringement instantaneously over a wide area network like LoRa. And the real-time telematics, concerning driver performance, engine performance and the health of the vehicle might alert a contact centre to a potential problem, who then contacts the driver over a built-in hands-free device to notify the driver of the imminent problem.

Of course, Big Data will also prove indispensable to mastering artificial intelligence (AI) implementation – in self-driving cars, city planning, health, finance and virtually all of industry. But it will also allow industry to optimise systems, extract expense, more accurately segment markets and crucially, improve customer experiences and offer more customer-centric products and services.

Inspiring innovation

Data sharing needs to be used to monitor customer feedback at every point of the sales journey, to allow for optimisation and innovation. And it’s needed to create an almost powerful omnichannel experience, since it costs significantly more to earn a new customer than it does to retain an existing one.

The rise of Big Data will force industry to continuously innovate and disrupt the market with new services and products, to keep pace with customer buying habits.

It’s going to take a lot of work to initially implement – to master data security, relevancy and redundancy, migrate away from legacy systems into the cloud, and to adopt a far less siloed approach between businesses and across industries. POPI also means that compliance is going to be more of a focus than ever, and sharing data won’t be as simple as uploading it to the cloud for all to access.

The potential for substantial return on investment, more than other innovations has made prior, will far outweigh the risks and expenses. It will require that industries come together, to form holistic alliances and partnerships and share data in a way that has never been done before. Ultimately, the future of Big Data is a bright one, filled with unfathomable potential.

How Do I Become A Law Enforcement Officer?

Are you interested in a career in law enforcement? Law enforcement officers, also known as police and detectives, work to protect the society and the environment. As such, the work can be described as stressful and dangerous. If you want to become a law enforcement officer, it’s essential to find out about the qualifications and training. Here’s a guide on how you can become a law enforcement officer.

The minimum education requirement for a law enforcement officer is a high school diploma. For application to some departments, you are required to do college coursework for 1 or 2 years and in some instances, you have to be a college graduate. Since a certain level of agility, stamina, and competitiveness is required for a number of law enforcement positions, it’s highly helpful that you can show active participation in sports and physical education classes. In many urban law enforcement departments and Federal agencies, you will stand a better chance if you have knowledge of a second language.

If you are serious about pursuing a career in law enforcement, you are encouraged to take law enforcement courses after high school. Nowadays, a good number of applicants for entry-level law enforcement positions are college graduates or people who have done some postsecondary education. There are many law enforcement programs offered by many institutions of higher learning. Officers who want to pursue a degree in administration of justice, police science, public administration or criminal justice will be rewarded with higher salaries upon completion of the degree and the tuition may be fully or partially paid by the law enforcement agencies.

Law enforcement officers are required to undergo a period of training before they are given their first assignments. In State and large agencies, the training usually span about 12 to 14 weeks in a specific police academy. Some examples of classroom instruction are subjects like civil rights, accident investigation, constitutional law, local ordinances, and State laws. In practical instruction, recruits will be trained in first aid, traffic control, self-defense, emergency response, use of firearms, and patrol. In some big cities, the police departments can hire high school graduates as police trainees or cadets. Since these recruits are still in their teens, they will attend classes and perform clerical duties until they come of age to join the regular force.

There are specific requirement for fish and game wardens. The minimum education requirement is 2 years of college study in most States. Successful applicants have to undergo training which lasts from 3 to 12 months, and additional field training may be required. If you want to work in a Federal law enforcement agency, you should have the related work experience, a bachelor’s degree or both. After you are accepted, you will undergo extensive training in special training centers in Virginia or Georgia.

To qualify as a law enforcement officer, you must be at least 21 years old and you must be a citizen of the United States. Other than that, you should meet high standard physical and personal qualifications.